Instructions to Authors


Enacted on October 5, 2012

Aims and Scope

The Weed & Turfgrass Science is an journal for papers related to the publication of fundamental research and applied research on aspects of weed and Turfgrass science.
The Journal publishes reports of basic research on turfgrass breeding, physiology, pest and pesticide, herbicide, resistence, soil and fertilizer biochemistry, biological and physical processes affecting environmental changes in turfgrass and weed. Topics also include molecular and cellular biology, biochemistry, metabolism, developmental biology, ecology, taxonomy and systematics, genetics/genomics, fungal pathogen and disease and weed control, physiology, and industrial biotechnology using weed and turfgrass.
Manuscripts for submission to Weed & Turfgrass Science should be prepared according to the following instructions. Weed & Turfgrass Science (WTS) is published quarterly by The Korean Society of Weed Science and The Turfgrass Society of Korean.

Research and Publication Ethics

Authors must ensure that the works described in submitted manuscript have not been published (except in a form of abstract, lecture, or academic thesis) and are not being under consideration for publication elsewhere.
For the policies on research and publication ethics that are not stated in these instructions, the Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (Publication Ethics COPE Guidelines: http// should be applied.


Authors of this journal must satisfy all of the following criteria. Failure to meet any of these criteria will result in classification as a contributor rather than an author.

1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND
4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved

Review Process

Manuscripts are considered to be confidential and are reviewed by the editors, members of the Editorial Board, or other qualified reviewers. Each manuscript receives at least two simultaneous reviews. When a manuscript is submitted online, it is given a manuscript number and assigned to one of the editors. Each reviewer makes a specific recommendation to the editor for the manuscript, based on the following aspects as applicable: importance of the research, originality of the work, appropriateness of the experimental design, soundness of conclusions and interpretations, relevance of discussion, and demonstration of reproducibility.
The corresponding author is notified an average of one month after submission of the editor’s decision to accept, reject, or require modification. When a manuscript is returned to the corresponding author for modification, it should be returned to the editor within two months; otherwise it may be considered withdrawn.


All rights reserved. The full term of copyright is assigned to The Korean Society of Weed Science and The Turfgrass Society of Korea for all articles submitted to Weed & Turfgrass Science. Once accepted, the manuscripts are not allowed to be reproduced in part or whole without the permission of the journal society.
All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g., as offprints), as well as all translation rights. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.

Manuscript preparation

The format for manuscript is as follows: tables and figures, 2.0 spaced in MS Word format with 10 point size and margins of 20 mm of left and right, 25 mm of top and 30 mm of bottom side. This Journal use both Korean and English. If write Korean, Abstract, Acknowledgement(s), References, Fig. and Table of manuscripts should be written in standard scientific English. Number pages consecutively beginning with the title page. Begin each of the following on a separate page and arrange in the following order: Title page, Abstract and Keywords (three to five words), text (Introduction, Materials and methods, Result and discussion), Acknowledgement(s), References, Figure and Tables. Chinese or Japanese manuscripts could be written by each language in text part. Types of manuscript were Review, Research article, and Research note. First report could be submit when accept by Editorial Board.
The Journal requires the use of the metric system, preferentially SI units, and centered period between units (e.g. mg L-1). Latin words or phrases are in italics, with the exception of very common expressions such as ‘et al.’, ‘in vitro’, ‘in vivo’. All pages must be numbered consecutively from the title page, and include the acknowledgements, references, tables and figure legends. Non-native English authors are highly recommended to use a scientific English editing service to improve the manuscript prior to submission to Weed & Turfgrass Science.

Manuscript submission

Authors must submit manuscripts through our website ( Manuscripts should be submitted by the corresponding author and first author.

Manuscript type

1) Research article
All research articles should be organized with title page, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, acknowledgements, and references. The results and discussion sections may be divided.
2) Research note
Research notes submit in the same manner as research articles. They receive the same review, and are published with research articles. Research notes must have an abstract of no more than 200 words. Do not use section headings in the body of the paper; report methods, results, and discussion in a single section. The number of figures and tables should also be kept to a minimum. Acknowledgements and references should be identical to those of regular articles.
3) Mini-review
Mini-reviews are brief summaries (limit of 8 printed pages) of developments in fast-moving areas of turfgrass and weed. Minireviews may be either solicited or submitted by authors responding to a recognized need. Irrespective of origin, minireviews are subjected to editorial review. There is no prescribed layout for mini-reviews, but the tables and citation style should conform to the guidelines for research articles.


The title should be a concise description of the contents of the paper. Capitalize the first letter of all title words except articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. Use common names for wellknown species. Cultivar names can be used only for comparisons. Serial titles indicating a series of related papers are not generally recommended. The title page should include the title, full name of each author and their institution with mailing address (es). If an author has since moved to a different institution, the new location can be indicated in a footnote. The corresponding author should be noted by an asterisk. For multiple affiliations, use respective superscript numbers to match authors and their affiliations.

The title page

Title page include the title, running title, authors’ names and affiliations, footnotes to the title and any author who is no longer in the institute where the work was performed, as well as the complete address for the corresponding author including telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. The title should be short, but clarity must be observed. Each manuscript should present the results of an independent and cohesive study; thus, numbered series titles are not permitted. The running title should not exceed 50 characters, including spaces.


The Abstract must be a summary for the whole paper from objectives to results and conclusions written in one paragraph. Abstract should be 150-200 words. The Abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. After the Abstract list up to 5 key words, which have not been used in the title, in lower case and print in italic type. Common species name(s), chemical name(s), physiological or pathological term(s), and genetic term(s) can be used.


The introduction should provide the necessary background information in the same field. Previous publications that form a basis for the work presented must be cited.

Materials and Methods

Materials and Methods should be sufficiently detailed that they could be followed by other researchers in the field. This section should be made as concise as possible by reference to procedures that have already been published, unless the method used here was greatly modified. Scientific names of species and cultivar names used must be included regardless of their appearance in Abstract or Introduction. Treatments, experimental design, and statistical method must be explained in detail. Commonly known methods or analyses may be briefly explained by citing relevant references.

Results and Discussion

The Results section contains the results of research given in detail, with tables and figures as needed. Results that can be expressed easily in the text should not be given in the form of tables or figures.
The Discussion section should not contain a repeat of the results, but should explain the meaning of the findings and the authors’ conclusions, together with a discussion of any contradiction of already published reports.

Acknowledgement (s)

The Acknowledgement (s) section should be as brief as possible and English. Any grant that requires acknowledgement (s) should be mentioned. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. Acknowledgement (s) of help from colleagues and professional associates are appropriate, but avoid acknowledgement (s) of routine secretarial help or family members.


References made in the text should refer to them by the author’s family name(s) and was to write a Roman script according to the Harvard system. For those publications written by three or more authors, the name of the senior author followed by et al. should be used. All literature cited should be listed in an alphabetical order, by the author’s family names. For the same author, or for the same set of authors, literature cited should be arranged chronologically. If there is more than one publication in the same year for the same author(s), the letter a, b, etc. should be added to the year. And do not use an issue number if the Journal uses consecutive numbers for each volume. Please note the following examples, and refer details to the literature citations in the current issue of the Weed & Turfgrass Science.
*References in the text should be alphabetized following author’s family name (s).

References (example)

Journal articles

1) One author:
Kim, K.N. 2012. Effect of polymer, calcium, perlite and chitosan in soil organic amendment on growth on perennial ryegrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 26(1):24-34. (In Korean)
2) Two authors:
Chang, T.H. and Lee, Y.S. 2010. Evaluation of occurrence of yellow patch caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis of cool season turfgrass cultivars and species. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 24(1):24-30. (In Korean)
3) Three and four authors:
Yoo, J.H., Moon, B.C., Lee, I.Y. and Kim, D.H. 2012. Effect of Acalypha australis occurrence on soybean growth and economic threshold level of Acalypha australis. Weed Turf. Sci. 1(4):13-17. (In Korean)
4) More five authors:
Lee, B.Y., Park, K.L., Lee, Y. Cho, J.R., Lee, S.M., et al. 2012. Vertical distribution of weed seed in the soil as affected by tillage and no-till. Weed Turf. Sci. 1(4):1-5. (In Korean)


Nesmith, W.C. and Dowler, W.M. 1973. Cold hardiness of peach trees as affected by certain cultural practices. HortScience 8:267 (Abstr.).


Hartmann, H.T., Kester, Jr., D.E. and Geneve, R.L. 1997. Plant propagation: Principles and practices. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. USA.

Book chapter:

Brown, A.G. 1975. Apples, pp. 3-37. In: Janick, J. and Moore, J.N (Eds.). Advances in fruit breeding. Purdue Univ. Press, West Lafayette, Ind. USA.

Dissertation or Thesis:

Reeder, J.D. 1981. Nitrogen transformation in revegetated coal spoils. PhD Diss., Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. (Diss. Abstr. 81-26447.)

Bulletin et al.:

Rollins, H.A., Howlett, F.S. and Emmert, E.H. 1962. Factors affecting apple hardiness and methods of measuring resistance of tissue to low temperature injury. Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Bul. 901.


American Society for Horticultural Science. Tropical Region. 1970. Proc. XVIII Annu. Mtg., Miami, 25-30 Oct. 1970. (Proc. Trop. Reg. Amer. Soc. Hor. Sci. 14.)

Proceeding paper:

Locasio, S.J., Fiskell, T.G.A. and Everett, P.E. 1970. Advances in watermelon fertility. Proc. Trop. Reg. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 14:223-231.


U.S.A. Department of Agriculture. 1977. Agricultural statistics for 1996. U.S. Dept. Agr., Washington, D.C. p. 307.

Books published by organization or group:

American Public Health Association. 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th (Eds.) Washington, DC, USA.
NIAST. 1988. Methods of soil chemical analysis. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, Suwon, Korea. (In Korean)


tilte. 2012. http// (Accessed Nov. 10. 2012).


Roth, T.L. 1972. The manufacturing process of natural insecticide. US Patent 3670.


Tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals and designed to fit the single-column width or the full page width. Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
Each table should have a brief title and, where necessary, a short statement about the specific methods used. The intent is to avoid extensive legends, placing detailed protocols in the Materials and Methods section, but leaving no doubt as to the procedures used to obtain the data.
Unit must be clearly indicated for each of the entries in the table. Footnotes to tables should appear beneath the tables and should be designated by lower case superscript letter, a, b, c, etc. Each table should be prepared on a separate page.


Figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals and should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order. Manuscripts submitted online should contain all figures and should be suitable for publication, especially for color printing. Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations and avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc. Figure parts should be denoted by uppercase letters (A, B, C, etc).
Figure captions begin with the term Fig., followed by the figure number. Figure legends should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without reference to the text. However, details given in Materials and Methods or in other tables or figures should not be repeated but merely referred to.
The method that is unique to one of several experiments may be reported in a legend if it can be described very briefly. All symbols and abbreviations used in the figure that have not been defined elsewhere should be defined.

Figure legends:

Figure legends should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without frequent reference to the text. Define all symbols used in the figure, and define all abbreviations if they are first mentioned in the figure.


Verb tense:

It is recommended that authors use the past tense to describe particular events in the past, including the procedures, observations, and data of the study that authors are reporting. Use the present tense for the authors’ own general conclusions, firm conclusions of previous researchers, and generally accepted facts and phenomena.
The Abstract, Materials and Methods, and Results are generally in the past tense, whereas most of the Introduction and some of the Discussion are in the present tense. However, the tense may vary within a single sentence.

Description of localitie:

The description of locality names should be used. In the case of the Republic of Korea, refer to the Guidelines for the Romanization of Korean Localities (


Standard metric units should be used for describing length, height, weight, and volume. Temperature should be given in degrees Celsius (°C). All others should follow the International System of Units (SI). All units must be preceded by one space except percentage (%) and temperature (°C).


The numbers should be Arabic numerals, except when beginning a sentence. Numbers greater than 999 should have commas (e.g.: 1,000). The 24-hour system is used to indicate time (e.g.: 18:00 hr).


Abbreviations must be used as an aid to the reader, rather than as a convenience for the author, and therefore their use should be limited. Generally, avoid abbreviations that are used less than 3 times in the text, including tables and figure legends. In addition to abbreviations for SI units, common molecular, chemical, immunological, and hematological terms can be used without definition in the title, abstract, text, tables, and figure legends (bp, kb, kDa, DNA, cDNA, RNA, mRNA, PCR, SDS-PAGE, ELISA, IgG, RBC, and WBC). Other common abbreviations are as follows: hr (hour; use 0-24:00 hr for time), sec (second), min (minute), day (not abbreviated), wk (week), mon (month), yr (year), L (liter), ml (milliliter), µl (microliter), g (gram), kg (kilogram), mg (milligram), µg (microgram), ng (nanogram), pg (picogram), n (sample size), SD (standard deviation of the mean), SE (standard error of the mean).


Editorials are invited by the editor and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the journal. Editorial topics could include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields of turfgrass and weed. Editorials should not exceed 2,000 words, excluding references, tables, and figures.

Letters to the Editor

Letters to the editor should include brief constructive comments that concern previously published articles and interesting cases. Letters to the editor should be submitted no more than 3 months after the paper has been published. Cover pages should be formatted in the same manner of turfgrass and weed papers. Do not include a title page. The corresponding author should be the first author. Body text should not exceed 500 words and should have references. Letters may be edited by the Editorial Board, and if necessary, responses by the author of the subject paper may be provided.