Effect of Four Soil Amendments on Turfgrass Establishment and Density in Creeping Bentgrass Grown in Sand-based Root Zone

Kyoung-Nam Kim1,*   

1Department of Environmental Design and Horticulture, College of Science and Technology, Sahmyook University


Research was initiated to evaluate four domestic and overseas organic soil amendments (SAs) on turfgrass groundcover and density and to provide basic information on practical sports turf establishment. This study was conducted in Agrostis palustris Huds. (CB) grown in sand-based root zone. A total of 20 treatments of SA+sand were prepared by mixing 10 to 50% (v/v). These amendments were SABP (Berger Peat), SAEP (Eco-Peat), SAGS (G1-Soil), and SAPP (Premier Peat). Turfgrass groundcover and density significantly varied with SAs, its mixing rate to sand and week after seeding (WAS). Cumulative turfgrass density was variable, but a great change occurred between 2 and 4 WAS. Turfgrass density at 2 WAS ranged from 36.7 (SABP 30) to 89.7% (SAGS 20), being 53.0% in differences among treatments. However, CB reached to carrying capacity around 6 WAS. Thus, most treatments were similar to 90% or so in density. At the end of study, overall groundcover ranged between 60.7 (SAEP 10) and 96.7% (SAPP 50). Proper mixing rate was variable with SAs, being 10 and 20% for SABP and SAGS, respectively. But the optimum rate was 50% for both SAEP and SAPP.


This paper was supported by the Sahmyook University Research Fund in 2018.

Figures & Tables

Fig. 1. Turfgrass groundcover at the end of study of creeping bentgrass grown in sand-based root zone. Treatments as described in Table 1 were comprised of four organic matter amendments and sand. These amendments were two imported peats of Berger Peat (SABP; Les Tourbières Berger Ltee, Quebec, Canada) and Premier Peat (SAPP; Premier Tech Horticulture, Quebec, Canada) with two domestic soil amendments such as Eco-Peat (SAEP; Nature & Environment Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea), G1-Soil (SAGS; Nature & Environment Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea). Treatments were arranged with these amendments at five volume percentages (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%; v/v). The remaining soil for each treatment was a pure sand, meeting United States Golf Association putting green specifications. Different letters indicate significant differences among treatments, using a Duncan’s multiple range test at P=0.05.