The management of soil physical properties is one of the most basic knowledge in cultural practice for sports turfgrass design, construction, and maintenance. This study was initiated to analyze the correlation between root growth of major cool-season turfgrasses (CSG) and soil physical properties which were established on United States golf association (USGA) soil profile. Turfgrass entries were comprised of 3 blends and 3 mixtures from Kentucky bluegrass (KB), perennial ryegrass (PR), and tall fescue (TF). In 2-year establishment of CSG, differences were significantly observed with soil surface hardness and water infiltration rate. The highest value of soil surface hardness was associated with KB and lowest with TF. Other entries such as PR and Mixtures I (KB:PR=40:60), II (KB:PR:TF=25:25:50) and III (KB:PR=30:70) were intermediate between KB and TF, depending on turfgrass species and mixing ratio. There were also great variations in infiltration rate. KB showed the fastest speed, being 1,960 mm·h-1. But PR had the lowest rate of 1,435 mm·h-1, being 26.7% slower in water infiltration speed, as compared with KB. TF was ranked between KB and PR with a rate of 1,890 mm·h-1. As for CSG mixtures, the higher the KB, the faster the infiltration rate, while the higher the PR, the slower the rate. Differences in soil surface hardness and infiltration rate were considered to result from growth habit and root growth characteristics. The correlation analysis with rooting growth development demonstrated significant negative values on soil surface hardness (r=-0.595) and water infiltration rate (r=-0.611).
Figures & Tables
Fig. 1.Cross-sectional diagram of United States Golf Association (USGA) soil profile at the site of research field. (HDPE pipe: high-density polyethylene pipe)