Germination and Early Growth Characteristics of Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) and Herbicides Selection for its Chemical Control

Jeung-Woo Ko1   Yu-Na Kim1   Seon-Min Park1   Chang-Wook Park1   Hee-Soon Park1   Yeon-Gyeong Park1   Ko-Eun Lee1   In-Yong Lee2   In-Jung Lee1,*   

1Division of Plant Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2Crop Protection Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, RDA, Wanju 55365, Korea


This study was carried out to investigate the germination characteristic of Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) in the response of various temperatures, seeding depths, light condition, and to select herbicides for its effective chemical control. O. biennis has the ability to germinate in both light and dark conditions although its germination was delayed and decreased under dark condition. No germination was not observed at below 15℃ suggesting that O. biennis requires temperature greater than 15℃. Germination percentage was 55% and 35% at 25℃ and 35℃, respectively. Seed of O. biennis sown at the depth of 4cm failed to germinate, while the those sown at 0, 1, and 3 cm were able to germinate with the germination percentages of 61, 51, and 30%, respectively, suggesting that the deeper the soil burial depth, the lower the germination of O. biennis. Seeds stored at 5℃ for 4 months maintained greater germinability than those stored at 10℃ and room temperature conditions. Application of pedimethalin and indaziflam at half of their recommended dose inhibited (99%) significantly the pre-emergence of O. biennis. Glyphosate-isopropylamine+pyraflufen-ethyl, glyphosate-potassium and glyphosate showed relative lower post-emergence O. biennis control as compared with pre-emergence herbicides. Overall, pre-emergence herbicids were more effective against O. biennis than post-emergence applied herbicides.

Figures & Tables

Fig. 1. Germination of under different light conditions at 25 days after seeding (DAS). (Upper: Light condition, Down: Dark condition).